政府给搬家费都喊不回美国企业?库克两年前说得很清楚了:不只是钱的事

2020-05-05 21:31   1168次浏览

“打电话给搬家公司,华盛顿来买单。”

Call the moving company, Washington's picking up the tab.

据美国媒体《福布斯》报道,近日,美国白宫国家经济委员会主任拉里·库德洛,公开呼吁美国企业撤离中国, 并表示,疫情后期,将会采取措施改变美国对中国过度依赖的关系。

Kudlow told one of the people in attendance, who had asked about America's over-reliance on China, what could be done to change the commercial relationship post-pandemic.

美国对中国过度依赖? 虽然拉里·库德洛没能解释凭什么得出这样的结论,但他“愿意支付美企离华的搬家费”这句话,吸引了很多媒体的关注。

美企反应如何呢?据路透社17日报道,的调查显示,大多数在华美企并没有因为疫情产生撤离中国的计划。

一个多月前,美国贸易代表批准豁免美国智能手表(Apple Watch)进口关税。苹果申请豁免的原因侧面解释了为何“搬家费”难起作用。

苹果表示,该公司在中国以外的确找不到能满足需求的生产地。

Apple had argued that it had not found a way to make the watch outside China to meet American demand for the device over the next year.

找到中国的替代者,到底有多难?

库克:中国很多年前就不是

低劳动力成本国家了

难道这个世界上就没有比中国劳动力成本更低的国家?其实2017年,在《财富》全球论坛上,苹果公司CEO蒂姆·库克就深入解释过这个问题。

库克称,大家对苹果与中国有一定的误解或者混淆。

他说, 打开iPhone的包装盒看看背面,你会看到上面写着 “加利福尼亚苹果公司设计,中国组装”。但这张照片并不能揭示苹果手机今天是如何生产的,也不能解释为什么苹果更喜欢选择在中国生产。

Take a look at the back of the box from which you unpacked your iPhone and you'll see this: "Designed by Apple in California Assembled in China."

But as Apple CEO Tim Cook recently pointed out, this picture wouldn't tell the entire story of how an iPhone actually gets made today, nor why Apple prefers to make them in China.

库克认为:“人们对中国缺乏清晰认知。他们普遍认为,外企来中国是因为中国劳动力成本低。我不确定他们去了中国的哪个地方,但事实是,中国很多年前就不再是低劳动力成本国家了。从供应的角度来看,这并不是来中国的理由。”

There's a confusion about China. The popular conception is that companies come to China because of low labor cost. I'm not sure what part of China they go to but the truth is China stopped being the low labor cost country many years ago. And that is not the reason to come to China from a supply point of view.

苹果公司为什么选择“中国制造”?

库克坦言,青睐中国原因是,这里的一群人。

The number one reason why we like to be in China is the people.

在中国有怎样一群人,如此难替代呢?

库克进一步解释称,中国拥有大量技能娴熟的人才。中国有 大量在其他地方看不到的技术劳动力。

Cook credits China's vast supply of highly skilled vocational talent. "China has an abundance of skilled labor unseen elsewhere,"says Cook.

库克不断强调,是人才的量,高技能职业人才的储备量,集中在一个地区的技能数量和技能类型的量。他举了一个形象的例子。

“在美国,你可以召开一次模具工程师会议,但我不确定我们是否能把会议室坐满。在中国,你可以坐满好几个足球场。”

In the US you could have a meeting of tooling engineers and I'm not sure we could fill the room. In China you could fill multiple football fields.

在库克看来,这样的人才技术储备量,得益于中国的教育体系。多年的深厚教育积累,才培养出了这样的人才库。他认为,这并不是一个别国短期可以弥补、解决的问题。

“这里的职业专业知识非常非常深厚,我非常赞赏这里的教育体系,因为他们即使在别人不重视职业技能的时候仍然坚持不懈。现在我认为世界上很多国家已经意识到这是一个关键问题,我们必须纠正它。而中国从一开始就认识到了职业技能的重要性。”

The vocational expertise is very very deep here, and I give the education system a lot of credit for continuing to push on that even when others were de-emphasizing vocational. Now I think many countries in the world have woke up and said this is a key thing and we've got to correct that. China called that right from the beginning.

中国这样的高职业技能人才储备库对苹果到底有多重要,他讲了两个鲜为人知的细节。

一是在硬件生产上

库克举了一个中国供应商的例子,这家公司给苹果公司生产AirPods等产品,已合作多年。

“当你站在用户的角度打量AirPods时,你可能会认为它的生产不会那么难,毕竟它真的很小。但其实AirPods有几百个零部件,而且音频质量的度——如果不谈技术工程——真的很难做到。这需要极高的技术水平。”

When you think about AirPods as a user, you might think it couldn't be that hard because it's really small. The AirPods have several hundred components in them, and the level of precision embedded into the audio quality--without getting into really nerdy engineering--it's really hard. And it requires a level of skill that's extremely high.

很多 人以为,苹果简单地把设计交给供应商,供应商只需要根据参数生产产品。 库克称,“ 这种想法是完全不对的 。 ”

And the idea that Apple simply hands over the design to a company like ICT, which just manufacturers according to spec, is simply untrue, says Cook.

“事情不是设计师设计完(把内容)发给工厂这么简单,这听起来毫无互动性。事实是,与我们产品相关的过程工程和开发流程本身就需要创新。要知道不仅产品需要创新,它的制造方式也需要创新,因为我们想要制造数亿的产品量,我们还想要零缺陷的生产水平。”

It's not designed and sent over, that sounds like there's no interaction. The truth is, the process engineering and process development associated with our products require innovation in and of itself. Not only the product but the way that it's made, because we want to make things in the scale of hundreds of millions, and we want the quality level of zero defects.

“数亿零缺陷的产品,一直是我们所追求的。而要达到这个目标,需要一种亲密无间的伙伴关系,尤其当你想在所拥有的材料类型上挑战极限的时候,当产品的参数规格要求高度的时候。你不能回避这个问题。这根本行不通。我无法想象那会是什么样子。”

That's always what we strive for, and the way that you get there, particularly when you're pushing the envelope in the type of materials that you have, and the precision that your specifications are forcing, requires a kind of hand in glove partnership. You don't do it by throwing it over the chasm. It would never work. I can't imagine how that would be.

▌二是在软件开发上

“ 最不为人知的是,中国有近200万应用程序开发者在为iOS应用商店编写程序。”

库克介绍称,这些移动应用程序的创新性世界,而其背后的运营者,也都是全球最鼓舞人心、且创业精神的人。他们开发的产品不仅在中国销售,还出口到世界各地。

...the part that's the most unknown is there's almost 2 million application developers in China that write apps for the iOS App Store. These are some of the most innovative mobile apps in the world, and the entrepreneurs that run them are some of the most inspiring and entrepreneurial in the world. Those are sold not only here but exported around the world.

库克表示:“中国的制造业已经迈入了非常先进的阶段。所以你会发现,在中国,工匠类的技能、复杂的机器人技术和计算机科学世界交汇在一起。这种交集在任何地方都非常罕见,这种技能对我们的业务非常重要,因为我们喜欢和质量水平。”

China has moved into very advanced manufacturing, so you find in China the intersection of craftsman kind of skill, and sophisticated robotics and the computer science world. That intersection, which is very rare to find anywhere, that kind of skill, is very important to our business because of the precision and quality level that we like.

“ 外国人来中国,大多数关注的都是中国的市场规模。很明显,在很多领域,中国都是世界上的市场。但对我们来说,最吸引我们的是这里的人的素质。”

The thing that most people focus on if they're a foreigner coming to China is the size of the market, and obviously it's the biggest market in the world in so many areas. But for us, the number one attraction is the quality of the people.

美国公司撤出中国,真能解决美国的问题么?拉里·库德洛应该清醒地认识到,中国可不是只有成本优势。中国市场和供应链优势非常突出,创新优势不断增强,美国公司与中国脱钩就是选择错失机遇。

美国疫情发展到今天,为何一些美国政客还是不明白,世界各国面临的局面是:合则两利,斗则俱伤。

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